ZEMCH 2012 International Conference Proceedings - page 209

U s e r A w a r e n e s s t o E n e r g y C o n s e r v a t i o n S t r a t e g i e s
199
USER AWARENESS TO ENERGY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES
IN NON-DOMESTIC BUILDINGS IN IRELAND
John Onyango
1
, Ryan Ciaran
2
, & Karim Hadjri
3
1
School of Architecture, University of Miami, USA
,
2
School of Planning Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queens University Belfast, UK
,
3
School of Built and Natural Environment, University of Central Lancashire, UK
,
Abstract
There has been a lot of emphasis placed on the assessment of energy use in buildings
as a means to the reduction in CO2 emissions. Smart meter technology that captures
and displays not only the energy usage but also the quality of indoor environment are
currently used widely within the UK, however, there exists a disconnect between the
energy management systems (EMS) technology and the user behavior that could
potentially affect the consumption profile. This study was carried out in Northern Ireland
and revealed that energy data is hardly shared with the users, which affected their
energy conservation strategies.
Keywords:
Energy Management system, sustainability, carbon dioxide emissions,
energy usage, user profile, Northern Ireland.
Introduction
Over the last couple years a lot of emphasis has been placed on the assessment of
energy use in buildings as a means to the reduction in CO2 emissions. Smart meter
technology that captures and displays not only the energy usage but also the quality of
indoor environment are currently used widely within the UK, however, there exist a
disconnect between the energy management systems (EMS) technology and the user
behavior that could potentially affect the consumption profile.
The United Kingdom, UK is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol and has made great efforts
towards the targets set under the Protocol post 2012. The Climate Change Act (2008)
proposes to lower net Green House Gas, GHG emissions by 80% or less by the year
2050 based on 1990 baseline levels (Crown, 2008a). Figure 1, illustrates the respective
GHG emission reduction targets for the UK as a whole and the sub targets for Scotland,
Wales and Northern Ireland respectively (DECC, 2011b).
The initial estimates of GHG emissions for 2009 and 2010 as indicate notable reduction
of 28.3% from the baseline and are indicative of possible targets being met, in the
meanwhile, over the same period there was a reduction in CO
2
emissions of 19.4% as
indicated in figure 2 above.
Energy Efficiency in Non-Domestic Buildings
Literature review reveals that there are 1.8 million non-domestic buildings in the UK
contributing an estimated 17% of the total emissions (UKGB, 2011) and the Carbon
Trust (2009), argue that it is possible to achieved 70-75% reduction in CO
2
emissions of
by 2050 at minimal or zero net costs if systems that employ intelligent metering were in
place. They however ignore the impact of occupier behavior and control related issues, a
view supported by Bordass
et al
(2004), Steemers and Manchanda (2010) who found
out that actual energy demands in office buildings are typically significantly higher than
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